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This article in the New York times describes Chicago’s architecture as world famous. To show off this archectiture in the city, “the Chicago Architecture Foundation offers first-rate guided tours to help visitors understand what makes this city’s skyline so special.” The foundation offers walking, bike, boat, and bus tours to more than 60 architectural sites and environments in and around Chicago. One of the CAF’s most popular tours is the 1 1/2-hour Architecture River Cruise. I have personally been on this tour and it was aw dropping. The boat sails along both the north and the south branches of the Chicago River. Although you can see these 50 or so buildings by foot, traveling by water give you a unique perspective. The boat allows you to see buildings from a lower angle, because the river is below street level. Also, the boats let you see a different side of the buildings, and it allows you to feel captured by the beauty of the city. On the boat it lets you appreciate the old and modern architecture that Chicago has. Therefore, this boat ride down the river can display the history of the City while showing off modern architectural styles. I would highly recomment this or any boat tour down the river is for anyone interested in Chicago architecture or the city itself.

– Jeremy



According to this time line, the Plans for the stadium begane in 1919, and was constructed by 1928, but was first opened on october 9th 1924. It was built of concrete faced with granite textured cash stone. The general design followed very similar architecture as in the Columbian Exposition. It followed ancient Greek and Roman architecture. The classic feature was the Doric colonmades that rose 100 feet above the playing field. The Chicago Bears started using the field in 1971. Then in 2002 they decided to remodel the stadium. The city of chicago, the Chicago Park District and an innovative architect and his firm created a world class state of the art stadium while leaving the famous columns.

Today Soldier Field stands in Chicago as an incredible display of innovative architecture. It will most likely be used and shown off to the world in the Olympic Games if they were brought to Chicago. Therefore, This field displays Chicago’s drive to continue to become a elite Global City.

– Jeremy


The Sears Tower has been a Chicago landmark for almost 36. Over that time the  Sears Tower has become the destination for millions of world tourists and a daily center of work and commerce for thousands of Chicagoans. This article describes the Sears Tower as having “served as a frequent backdrop to numerous groundbreaking films from Ferris Bueller’s Day Off (1986) to The Fugitive (1993), it has been scaled by such daring acrobats as Spider Dan (1981) and Alain “Spiderman” Robert (1998), it has been a highlight of media controversy in response to the CTBUH (1997), it has been a center of preparations for making Chicago HDTV capable (2000), it has been placed on the city’s list of focal points for protecting against terrorism (2003), and most recently it has been cited as a prospective new headquarters for the U.S. Olympic Committee (2008).” As well the building serves as a backdrop for any visitors to the city or metropolitian area, because it can be seen from miles and miles away.

It stands tall, over 1700 ft aloft. The Tower was designed in the 60’s by Bruce Graham. When the building was being constructed it was challenging two towers: the Aon Center and the World Trade center as the world’s tallest building. Therefore, this building shows Chicago commitment to putting Chicago at a status of an elite Global City.

– Jeremy



The Rookery building is the oldest high rise in Chicago that is still standing. It was designed by famous architects Daniel Burnham and John Root. This article explains the name “rookery” is inherited from the previous building on this site, an old city hall which was a favorite roosting spot of pigeons. The interior of the building is very famous. It includes a famous semi-spiral staircase. As well, the lobby was remodeled in 1905 by Frank Lloyd Wright, who simplified the ironwork and added planters and light fixtures in his characteristic style. The court is filled with light, and it became ver influence design in office building in Chicago. This building represents a transition between masonry and metal construction methods, with the outer walls supported mostly by masonry piers and the inner frame built of steel and iron. Therefore this building was very influencal to the city’s design after the Chicago Fire by setting the foundation for many attributed that is seen throughtout the city today.

– Jeremy


This article describes the Daley center as being an “exceptional example of International Style architecture, based on the revolutionary steel and glass skyscapers of world-famous architect Ludwig Mies van der Rohe.” This building is known as being Chicago’s first major public building that was constructed in a modern style of architecture. This was very different then the the previos classical style of architecture. It has huge spans of steel framing, and expetional spatial flexibitlity. The building host a large plaza, which has a fount and a monumental sculpture by Pablo Picasso.

Clearly this building help spread the international style of architecture in the city. This helped advance the Modern movement, which gave Chicago more of an identity. At the same time, the sculpture and fountain in the plaza add to the city’s beauty. Lastly, the building was named after former Mayer Richard M. Daley after his death. Therefore building’s like the Daley Center are great for the city, because they push for innovation, art, and celebrate one of the most important people, former Mayor Daley, to the development of the city.

– Jeremy


Yesterday, Barack Obama was elected President of the United States with a landslide of electoral votes. Obama is the 44th elected president and he will be the first African American President. That alone makes history. The face or image of the United States internationally will forever be change. Although, Barack Obama is also considered to be the President of the people of the United States. He has been able to connects liberals, moderates, blacks, whites, old and young people, democrats, and republicans all over the country. He has been able to change the attitude of the country. His slogan is “Yes We Can”, and last night at Grant Park around 100,000 people were chearing “Yes We Did! Yes We Did!”.

Clearly last night the event was one to be remembered. A quote in the Chicago Tribune this morning said from one person, “I want to get photos that show a sense of the overall feeling here, the moments that make this night,” she said, noting plans to e-mail the photos to friends across the country. “This is a night I’m proud to be a Chicagoan.” The feeling at the park was electric and something that could be seen from watching on TV. On TV the viewers could see to the north of the park, the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Tower was lit up to read “USA,” while just west of there, the Smurfit-Stone Building declared “Vote 2008” on its slanted diamond roof. This is exactly the kind of image World Business Chicago and the Olympic committee wants to bring to the city. Having a rally like that with Chicago as the background will be remembered for a long time. It highlights how great Chicago can be, and it can definitely help Chicago’s bid for the Olympics in 2016 because the entire world was watching.

Last night will be remembered for a long time. It took place from what was describe by the tribune as a “crystal-clear sky and a crescent moon, they came from across the country and around the world, stood shoulder to shoulder and cheered joyously for President-elect Barack Obama, each drawn for reasons as diverse as the faces around them.” While the people at Grant Park were inspired by the rally, so many more people were motivated. People around Chicago, people around the whole country, and people around the whole world left their homes to celebrate. At the University of Wisconsin Madison, I was able to witness a incredible unplanned celebration down state street. Around 3000 people packed the streets in a celebration. This type of reaction is probably something very similar to many other cities and towns last night around the world.

Despite what Barack Obama is able to accomplish as president, he has given inspiration to his country and the rest of the world. Hopefully, it will be able to spark all sorts of improvements by the people that were energized by the change Obama has created. For Chicago, there was no better way to have the change be highlighted but in the center of Grant Park.

– Jeremy


Many skyscrapers were created because of an original need for additional office space. Architects decided to build upward to satisfy the demand in urban areas so more people could take advantage of the resources that cities had to offer. One of the original towers created was the Monadnock building in Chicago, which still stands today at 15 stories, not high by today’s standards but was extreme for the time. Designed by Daniel Burnham and John Wellborn Root, this building was built with solid brick on the outer walls that was measured at six feet thick. Burnham and Root wanted to use metal instead of this thickness of brick but their clients did not trust this method. It was too extreme for the time period.

Eventually, Chicago architects began using office blocks with a skeleton entirely comprised of metal. Using metal for buildings faced a minor setback due to its expense at the time. Once steel became less expensive to produce and more widely available in the 1880’s, office towers began to grow taller and taller. The first architects to accept and visually accentuate this vertical character were Dankmar Adler and Louis Sullivan in Chicago. They began constructing 10 story buildings, which eventually grew larger. Later, Sullivan designed the Carson Pirie Scott department store building in Chicago which is now one of the most famous buildings in the city.

This type of architecture with the vertical character became known as the Chicago School. The main characteristic is the innovative steel-frame construction. Chicago School buildings have been praised as important precursors to 20th-century steel and glass skyscrapers. This construction made Chicago known as the birthplace of the first skyscraper. Therefore, this style of architecture that was invented in Chicago advanced the Modernism movement by aiding many of the skyscrapers designs created around the world.

– Jeremy

the white city

The Chicago Worlds Fair used Modernism to construct its site. Modernism was crucial to the cities development. It brought about new thinking that was able to aid in city planning. Many architects and leaders found at the end of the 19th century that new office skyscrapers were individually very impressive but they did not connect with the city as a whole. This look led to the belief that city designs occurred randomly and not planned out. Confusion was the result and few important people attempted to come up with a solution. The solution to eliminating the chaos in cities was largely influenced by the Columbian Exposition in 1893.

The Columbian Exposition helped change the confusion in the layout of cities. The Columbian Exposition was part of a World’s Fair held in Chicago that marked the 400th anniversary of the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Western Hemisphere. Landscape architects such as Frederick Law Olmstead and Daniel Burnham planned the Exposition. Their goal was to showcase a design that made a cohesive group through the layout of their buildings. The work from Olmstead and Burnham caused Chicago be renamed as the “White City”.  It was given this name because of the shimmering white colored buildings that were used and because the Fair was incredibly well run and planned out. The “White City” gave people an impression of the city of having no poverty or crime. The “White City” gave Chicago a positive image, which was very different from previous years before the Great Chicago Fire. Before the fire, Chicago had the impression of being gloomy and dark. The great planning and execution of the Exposition changed that image forever.

The “White City” buildings were all designed with a classical Roman Style. This style of architecture sparked construction of large-scale classical public buildings. City halls, art museums, and public libraries started to be made using the Roman Style. This became a new form of public building construction as architects and governments found that this classical architecture was very appropriate and appealing. The Supreme Court building became a good example of this style.  From a distance the classical temple of the building is obvious, but up close it shows a degree of simplification that connects it with the art deco modernism movement.

Besides the World’s Fair having an impact on public buildings, it also sparked the idea for many cities to start to strategically planning the layout of their urban landscape. Many cities installed permanent urban planning boards or committees to make certain the land was being maximized as efficiently as possible. City leaders for the first time realized there was a need to be sensible and systematic plan because there seemed to be chaos in too many urban areas prior to this realization. This made the urban cities so much better, and aided many cities in becoming part of the global community. Establishing a planning committee for cities became known as the City Beautiful movement and lasted from 1893 until the great depression in 1930’s. The goal of the City Beautiful advocates was to improve the city through beautification. They thought this would lead to several positive effects on the city. The planners thought city beauty would inspire civic loyalty and moral rectitude in the impoverished. They also thought by bringing beauty to the American cities it would bring more culture similar to their European competitor’s cities. The last thing the planners hoped would happen was that the upper class would want to live in the urban centers, or at least spend money and work in them. Through these three effects planners thought American cities would be able to play a more important role in the global community.

Therefore the Expostion sparked innovation that was clearly used throughout the city and the rest of the world. The fair aided Chicago into allowing it turn into a Global City by using planners and the unique style of architecture. Thanks to the Worlds Fair, Chicago is a city that can play a big role in the global community.

– Jeremy


According to this article,The Museum of Science and Industry is one of the most beloved and visited museums in the world.” The Museum origins are tied back to the Chicago Columbian Exposition which was the World’s Fair. Back then in 1893 the Exposition the Museum was called the Palace of Fine art. This building is the last major structure from the fair.

Thanks to the Chairmen of Sears Roebuck & Company in 1911, Julius Rosenwald the building was turned into a place of public science education. He was originally inspired by a visit with his son to the Deutches Museum in Munich, so when he returned to Chicago he wanted to create a place for “industrial enlightment”. In 1933 the Museum of Science and Industry opened to the public.

This museum in the oldest science museum in the Western hemisphere. It has over 800 exhibits and over 2,000 interactive units. The Museum of Science and Industry attracts about 2 million visitors per year. As well the building itself is a place to remember Chicago’s history.

Today Chicago is filled with Modernism, which is a result of many innovators pushing Chicago forward. Although without structures like this Museum and the Chicago Water Tower, people might forget where Chicago came rome. The Palace of Fine arts, now the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry, was created for the Colombian Exposition. This exposition was brought to Chicago to show the world that Chicago was a city of promise and optimism after the dreadful Chicago Fire in 1871. Therefore this building reminds Chicago and the rest of the world, how Chicago was able to start to rebuild and grow into a Global City.

– Jeremy

According to this article, “Marina city is a complex of two cylindrical towers near the Chicago River. Due to their unique shape, the towers are locally known as the ‘corn cobs’.” These two 60 story towers were built in 964 by Bertrand Goldberg. It is a apartment complex that includes recreational facilities, offices, restaurants, banks, a theater and 18 stories of parking space. Marina city was built with the idea of creating a fully society in the building. It became an alternative to the villages and small towns, offering everything in a small area.

Originally Chicago feared that the outflow of people from the cities in early sixties would lead to decrease jobgs. So this experimental complex created becasue it was financed by unions. It is definitly not the most famous building in Chicago, but Marina City reinforced the image of Chicago as a city on the forefront of modern urban architecture.

Even though this building is not the most famout, it is a very interesting site for movies, especially if you need to throw a car out of a building. There is a scene scene in “The Hunter” which is a car chase through one of the Marina City parking lots. The car eventually crashes in the scene through a barrier, and diving right into the river. Movies like this are great for the city because it provides more exposure for the city. The more exposure for Chicago will in the heirarchy of global cities. That is why Chicago is pushing so hard for the 2016 Olympics in the city, because the city wants to showcase to the world the opportunity Chicago offers.

– Jeremy